The biggest of Ugandan farmers do farming on a small scale to produce food for home consumption and if there is excess, it can be sold. This is mainly due to the primitive farming equipment (hand hoe and ox plough) that are still being used to prepare the land. They can only cultivate what they can till in the limited land preparation period.
The growing population, social economic factors and political instabilities have left a big part of arable land fragmented and not suitable for large scale farming
Rice growing, fishing, sand mining have left most of the water catchment systems, swamps and streams in a sorry state. This has been worsened by the fact that most of the culprits are in languishing poverty and this is their only option
The alternative source of income has been abused especially in areas where the government has little or no control, leaving the farmers to practice fishing as a means of survival.
89% of Ugandans to use firewood and charcoal as the main sources of fuel to cook. As a desperate mean of survival, people have carelessly cut down trees for firewood and to burn them for charcoal which greatly impacts on the environment and climate. This also distorts the rainfall pattern on the area hence affecting farming.
Uganda is blessed with the climate that allow the flora to naturally flourish. About 18.4% translating to 3,627,000 hectares of Uganda is forested. We have naturally existing forest that, are unfortunately being cut for timber to feed the growing construction industry and firewood thereby destroying the rainfall catchment areas.
This is considered the cheapest and most effective land clearing technique. It’s clearly due to lack of equipment the clear farmland. Unfortunately, this practice pollutes the environment and destroys the microorganisms in the soil.
In the Ugandan law, its legal children to work on farms. It is also socially traditionally acceptable to children to do farm work, however, how much work a child has to be subjected to is undefined and often time these young children are overworked. This is sometimes done at the expense of attaining education. It is a common practice for school going children to first cultivate in the garden before walking long distances to school
Unpredictable weather and climate change
Over 80% of Ugandan farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change and changes in rainy seasons, partly attributed to the poor practices above have made timely land preparation with primitive tools impossible
Bureaucracy and high interest on loans
Local farmers do not do proper bookkeeping and have no provable income as most of their transactions are informal. Lack of acceptable collateral Coupled with the exorbitant interest rates, local farmers have been financially excluded.
Akik cultural practice and customs in some area attribute garden work to the woman and the children and free the strongest member of the family of any farm work.
Primitive farming techniques
The majority of the farmers still use the hand hoe as the main agriculture tool, rely on rain, use poor yield seeds, spray with brooms or knapsacks, harvest with sickles and knives and store food in granaries. These tools cannot deliver sustainable food security and commercial agriculture.